(1) By Dr. Rudresh Vyas, Ph.D who is now Dean of Psychology Department at MTB Arts College, Surat. Click here for his letter.
(2) By Dr Poonam Dhaka (article below)
by V.L. CHOUHAN* and POONAM DHAKA**
*Associate Prof., Department of Psychology, and Hony. Director, Centre for Women's Studies.
**Research Scholar, Department of Psychology,
An innovative procedure that may improve students IQ scores, learning abilities and creativity (verbal and non-verbal) is the focus of this study. Previous studies have shown that light and sound stimulation has a powerful effect on the frequency activity of the brain. It has been shown that rhythmic sound waves entering the ears results in a phenomenon called "entrainment" whereby brain waves match and resonate at the same frequency as the difference in the stimulating audio frequencies for the left/right ears. In sound entrainment, the hemispheres of the brain produce brain waves that are highly similar in frequency, amplitude, phase and coherence. Entrainment to light rather than to sound stimulation occurs when rhythmic lights flashed into a subject's eyes. That is, the brain wave pattern of the entire cortex falls into the same frequency as the flickering light.
Electroencephalograph (EEG) studies have demonstrated that significant targeted behavioral changes occur as a result of the stimulation of intensive EEG training.
Other studies found that subjects given light and sound stimulation experienced dramatic changes: IQ increased and better grades in school. (Thomas Budzynski & Greens, 1976). Cunningham (1981) reported increased maths and reading scores as well as increased self-control in children following EEG biofeedback training. Caster and Russell (1981, 1992) and Tansey (1984, 1990) investigated the effects of EEG biofeedback training with learning-disabled boys and found that the children made significant gains on their IQ scores.
In a related series of investigation, Robert Cosgrove (1988) noted that the Audio-Visual Integrator (AVI) was very powerful in its ability to cause deep relaxation. Although there is considerable evidence that light and sound entrainment is a replicable physical phenomenon, there have been no quantitative studies on the possible effects on behaviour and brain functioning of sustained light and sound entrainment. The present study focused on the effects of light and sound stimulation on the IQ scores, learning abilities and creativity (verbal and non-verbal) of the students belonging to teenage. Following entrainment training with light and sound stimulation, it was hypothesized that the teenagers would show improvement in these areas : IQ scores, learning abilities and creativity (verbal and non-verbal).
A sample of 20 students were selected from teenage group i.e., 13 to 19 years with X to XII standard belonging to middle socio-economic status. Out of which 15 students were selected as experimental group and remaining 5 were kept in controlled group. The experimental group was divided into 3 sub groups and were administered to three different treatments. i.e., sound, light and light and sound stimulation through mind power music and mind machines.
The investigator used commercially available [program] and mind machines for this study. These devices were based on light and sound stimulation.
Sound stimulation was given by "Dr. Anil Bapna's Mind Power Music" [program].
This [program] uses relaxing music based on raga Anil
Light stimulation was given by "Universal's Mind Machine (model Faster Learning and Mind Programming)". It generates 10 Hz flashing light in both closed eyes simultaneously with variable intensity. The stimulation was given through special eye glasses which consisted of small red, light emitting diodes (LEDs), two per eyes are mounted in a black plastic frames of the folding sunglasses style.
Light and sound stimulation was given by "Universal's Mind Machine (model Super IQ)". It combines rhythmic light and sound stimulation. This device has been used to explore consciousness, to relax, to enhance performance, for learning, for sleep and energy.
The dependent measures were selected because of their wide use and availability. Both validity and reliability were assumed to be adequate for this study. The measures included Bhatia's Battery (to measure IQ), Baker Mahandi's creativity test (both verbal and non-verbal) and substitution test for learning.
Pre-test, post-test design was used by giving interventions of three types of experimental conditions. In the experimental group each of the subject were given their treatment as selected by the investigator and were instructed to use it for 15 days regularly for 30 minutes, twice a day, under the guidance of the investigator. While using mind machines subjects were in comfortable position. Special eye glasses were put on closed eyes along with head phones. After 15 days post testing was done immediately after the light and sound treatment. The difference of pre and post scores were subjected to analysis of variance by complete randomized block design (CRD) to test the superiority of the treatments.
Analysis of variance revealed significant difference among treatments for Bhatia's Battery, learning by substitution and creativity (verbal). In these measures all the three treatments were significantly superior than the control group. In first two measures all the three treatments were at par, where as in third i.e. creativity (verbal) maximum improvement was observed in light stimulation. Difference between sound and light-sound stimulation was non significant. For creativity (non-verbal) treatments had no significant effect (Table-1 and Fig. 1).
The above results were in agreement with the findings of EEG biofeedback studies. Thomas Budzynski and Greens (1976) found that subjects given light and sound stimulation experienced dramatic changes: increases in IQ and grade in school. Tansey (1984, 1990) has reported significant IQ gains after intensive EEG training. Bonny (1973) concluded that music directly stimulates right brain functioning.
The light and sound stimulation results presented in this study suggest that using the mind technology can help us to quickly learn the optimal brain-wave states for relaxed and peak performance. In addition, the evidence continues to accumulate that other types of brain technology, including light and sound stimulation can help us to shift brain wave activity into desired frequencies and induce the relaxed whole brain states that seem most conducive to peak performance.
The most amazing fact about mind machines is that they are widely available,
inexpensive and easy to use. This procedure appears to be less threatening and
demanding on the students being trained than EEG training model where the
subject is required to learn how to recognise and produce the desired brain
waves in aptitude and/or frequency. Instead, the light and sound stimulation
entrains the brain wave activity, enabling it to produce the desired brain wave
frequencies. This appears to be accomplished quite rapidly. This may
significantly shorten the training time required for the child to learn to
recognize and bring about an internal state in the brain such as concentration
or attention that is characterized by brain wave activity of particular
frequencies and amplitudes.
This study examined the effects of auditory and visual stimulation (AVS) on four specific cognitive abilities known to be weak in children diagnosed with Teaming disabilities (LDs). Learning disabilities comprise cognitive deficits in executive functioning; such deficits include working memory, encoding, visual-motor coordination, response inhibition, planning, and processing. Aside from medication, educational remediation, and classroom interventions, no specific intervention has been found to rehabilitate such cognitive weaknesses, although previous studies using AVS demonstrated enhanced academic performance in children with learning disabilities.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) SCAD (Symbol Search, Coding, Arithmetic, and Digit Span) was administered before and after 12 biweekly, 35-minute AVS sessions. Two index scores from the SCAD profile were also assessed: Freedom from Distractability (FFD) and Processing Speed (PS). The study design was quasi-experimental with repeated measures pre- and posttreatment. Findings demonstrated that AVS produced significant changes in specific cognitive abilities as measured by the WISC-III SCAD profile. Results suggest that this technology could greatly enhance the quality of life for learning-disabled individuals who, absent appropriate intervention, are at risk for social, psychological, and a multitude of personal disappointments and life-long failures.
Complete Ph D thesis available from www.proquest.com for payment.